Soft power is associated with nation states or groupings of states. The “West’s ” soft power played a key role in ending the Cold War according to its proponents. The more adventurous supporters go further: the “Beatles and demin” were more powerful than economic collapse and missiles.
The USA has soft power; the EU is trying to think of its soft power, China is embarking on a major soft power drive.
Nowadays the term soft power is used indiscriminately. Rather like public diplomacy a few years ago. It has become the fashion in thinking circles.
The term itself embodies two very opposite characteristics. Soft.. nice the cuddly. The arts, schools, universities, academics talking to each other, consumer goodies. It is extended into the universal values arena: political groupings which accept defeat and opposition; democracy, religious freedom etc.
Power is overlooked. Power is hard by definition. This is not the area of mutual understanding and awareness to use another universal phrase.
Power means convincing others to do what you want them to do.. and which they are not doing now.
“Soft power is no power” is a common riposte from the hard powerists (trade, military, the world of sanctions, boycotts, leading up to invasions and conflict). There is very little serious evaluation of whether soft power really works. Lots of theory; lots of anecdotes, lots of belief and an increasing number of indices (see my earlier articles and here). But where’s the evidence? I’ll explore this in the next article in this series.
But there is a new soft power on the block: people, individual people. It is likely that the online digital activism of Avaaz.org and others will block the relatively secretly organised international agreement on internet control: ACTA.
“We have recently seen how many thousands of people are willing to protest against rules which they see as constraining the openness and innovation of the internet. This is a strong new political voice,” Kroes said in a speech at the Re:publica conference in Berlin. “And as a force for openness, I welcome it, even if I do not always agree with everything it says on every subject.”
“We are now likely to be in a world without [the stalled US act] SOPA and without ACTA. Now we need to find solutions to make the internet a place of freedom, openness, and innovation fit for all citizens, not just for the techno avant-garde,” Kroes continued.
It was not many thousands. It was millions. from many countries. Several governments are going to be seriously angry at the ending of ACTA. Soft power in the hands of people. Do I hear democracy by citizens rather than democracy by vested interests?