The short answer is that nobody knows. UK Prime Minister May is refusing to offer a running commentary on the British approach to negotiating the exit and EU27 is refusing to open negotiations in advance of the formal notification under the now infamous Article 50.
The nearest to anything like a policy view during the referendum campaign was Boris Johnson’s comment that the “UK is leaving the European Union but not leaving Europe”. Oh that it would be that simple. The arts sector overwhelmingly voted to Remain. A view> Simpler still to stay in but that’s another story.
This is the first in a series of postings where I look at the possible future UK-EU27 relationships in the culture arenas (and there is certainly more than one arena!). To start with in this post I simply list the areas, and programmes, which need to be addressed in the Brexit negotiations. I don’t claim this is exhaustive so please drop me a comment and I’ll update the post.
Later posts will start to look at the implications.
I’m assuming the dark Brexit day will be sometime in 2019, before the elections to the European Parliament and before the next EU finance period from 2020. I’m also ignoring both any “transitional” arrangement and a straight switch to the EEA/Norway model as PM May wants a “bespoke” deal. Many formal statements emphasise that the UK remains a member and so can still play its full part: see the Arts Council of England. But then they would wouldn’t they!.
Let’s be clear about one thing. The Article 50 process means EU27 have the upper hand, by a long way. They will decide the terms of the exit. Will culture be seen as a small area, with no EU competency, so can the UK/EU27 carry on as before? Or will it be seen as the UK trying to cherry pick the “nice” parts of the EU? Time will tell.
The specific areas fall into money, people and processes.
Money: funding sources from the EU which could dry up with a very hard Brexit.
People: restrictions on the free movement of people both to the UK and from the UK to EU27
Processes: how “access” to the single market could work, taxes, laws, standards, influence,
A fourth area covers external influences: the UK economy, exchange rates and importantly the effects on the culture sectors in EU27 after Brexit.
Taken together they illustrate the complexity of Brexit (imagine the same issues multiplied across most of the UK economy).
In terms of impact we need to look from three different directions:
from the cultural and creative sectors: the producers
from the audiences and future audiences
from the effect on the 30 year momentum of the increasing influence, ambition and internationalism of the British cultural world
The worst case will be a serious and possibly slow shift to an inward looking insular society where because of money (lack of), difficulty, or even purpose the arts offer in the UK diminishes in ambition. There is a risk the Brexit cultural debate will focus on the producers, the list below does. The more important issue will be the effect on “the audiences” and the longer term momentum.
Creative Europe (or its successor). Will the UK seek to remain and pay an annual fee ( as Norway or as Turkey until they withdrew earlier this year over a genocide reference and took their €2m+ annual fee with them). The UK arts sector does well from Creative Europe. Continued participation in Creative Europe after 2020 should also smooth the path to co-host a European Capital of Culture in 2023 as membership of Creative Europe is a pre-condition). See Labour’s view > and mine on ECOC2023>
Media programme, (part of Creative Europe) gives funds for cinemas in UK showing films from other EU countries (and these cinemas are by far the main locations for any foreign language films in the UK). Supports pre-production costs (I, Daniel Blake received almost €100,000, The Kings Speech over €500,000), supports British films shown in the EU, has training programmes. Funding also helps co-productions. A view>
Other Funding Opportunities> Erasmus+, Europe for Citizens, COSME, INTERREG, ERDF (helped fund Peaky Blinders) and more. The British Council is successful in winning or managing EU projects, for example SHARE in South East Asia, European Voluntary Service, projects in China, Kosovo, Lebanon, Egypt. Will the British Council stay in the European Union Network of Cultural Institutes (EUNIC)? Will it take part in the new programmes of culture in the European Union’s external relations? Is there any effect on the UK’s and the EU’s soft power? A view>
Freedom of Movement. The “Big One”. Will UK arts organisations still be able to recruit staff from EU27? Will the creative and cultural industry sector still be able to recruit? Will existing EU27 staff and self employed keep their full rights after Brexit? Will any new recruits after Brexit need visas? Will the UK government impose sectoral quotas or salary thresholds? Will British citizens now in EU27 still be able work in EU27? Or only tied to their current country and/or current job? And in future will British citizens still be able to go to EU27 to work: (Bowie’s Berlin days a thing of the past?). Architects, animation studios, museums, heritage: you name it, the UK workforce is diverse (one of its strengths). Not forgetting those academics in cultural subjects in universities. What will EU27ers in the UK feel as they show their pre-Brexit or post Brexit ID cards? Will the rise in xenophobia die down?
Carnets and permissions? Will British based touring companies need a country by country carnet as they do for China? Touring orchestras, rock bands, early music groups, Adele, Rolling Stones, djs, theatre companies , exhibitions etc all affected. Will touring artists from EU27 also need carnets to bring their equipment etc. into the UK; effect on festivals? A view>
Qualifications: will UK qualifications still be accepted? A version of the qualifications issue is that EU committees, panels, “Open Methods of Coordination” (which discuss a wide range of policies) will no longer have British members. Will I be the last member and chair of the Selection Panel for European Capitals of Culture as membership is limited to nationals of EU member states?
Exports. Over 40% of the creative industries exports go to EU27. Free trade continues? Or tariffs (and WTO does not have any useful categories to use and Free Trade Agreements normally have little to say on services). Will British architects still be able to compete for commissions (Foster’s Reichstag?). Will the UK still benefit from the Digital Single Market? Will British TV and films still be classed as European in those countries with European quotas? And of course the mirror image of exports are imports. The cultural sector has supply chains as well as Nissan! Import duties on items from EU27?
Intellectual Property Rights. A minefield. A loss of engagement with developments in the fast moving field?. A view>
More law: Artists Resale Rights, Export Licencing Regime, restitution claims, the art market A view> and another>
And then there are the broader issues, the consequences of a Brexit.
The £ and exchange rates. A lower £ sterling affects many areas of the cultural sector. A view>
Weaker public finances. Will these put a further strain on public sector budgets at national and local levels?
I don’t expect this list is exhaustive. Please add!